Rehab 4 Addiction

Cocaine Rehab: Cocaine Addiction Treatment

Cocaine is a highly addictive stimulant drug that causes severe psychological and physical harm.

It is one of the most highly addictive substances known today.

This is why at Rehab 4 Addiction we offer extensive cocaine rehab programmes tailored to your individual needs.

In 2020, 777 deaths involved cocaine, which is 9.7% more than 2019.

A cocaine addiction causes an imbalance in the user’s brain. The drug offers intense but short-lived pleasurable effects prompting repeated use.

Cocaine makes users feel energetic and if great quantities of the drug are consumed, users experience violent tremors.

As users increase their intake, a tolerance to the drug builds up.

An even greater quantity of cocaine is needed to achieve the desired ‘high’.

Long-term users of cocaine can’t cope when the effects of the drug wear off. This pain is accompanied by intense physical cravings for the drug. Thus, withdrawal is difficult to succeed without professional intervention. Long-term effects include paranoia, panic attacks, anxiety, and depression. Cocaine rehab is one  way to tackle this problem.

Cocaine is so addictive that one-time use can trigger patterns of misuse leading to cocaine addiction.

However, with the right professional care, it is possible for an individual addicted to cocaine to gain back control over their life.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

What Makes Cocaine So Addictive?

Man snorting drugs on the table

As stated, cocaine is a very potent drug that increases the levels of dopamine in your body.

Dopamine is the chemical in your brain that gives you a sense of wellbeing.

After repeated use, your body gets used to the heightened levels of dopamine and you will feel depressed if you do not use cocaine.

Your body starts giving you hints that your dopamine levels need to be increased, and before you know it, you cannot function without cocaine anymore.

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Common symptoms of a cocaine addiction

Cocaine is not physically addictive, meaning that quitting cold turkey will not kill like some other class A drugs or substances such as alcohol.

However, this is not to say that there are no common symptoms displayed amongst those with cocaine addiction.

Cocaine usage is generally associated with behavioural changes. This may include personality changes such as becoming more irritable or frustrated but can affect those around the individual affected.

Family members or close friends are likely to notice these changes first, in which case it may be helpful to use the DSM-V criteria as mentioned above to categorise these behavioural changes further.

Cocaine is also a powerful stimulant, meaning that the brain’s activity is increased during usage. Though this provides short-term benefits, the long-term effects can be severe and lifelong if not treated immediately.

Individuals with a long history of cocaine abuse have reported an increased risk of mental health issues such as anxiety and depression as well as feelings of paranoia and risks of panic attacks.

Further analysis of these changes in the neuroscience field has shown that cocaine abuse can cause neurophysical alterations, affecting areas in the CNS responsible for sensations such as pleasure (2).

As more and more research topics are being discovered in this area, there are more and more negative effects being made evident, especially relating to a person’s long-term health and chances of future rehabilitation.

Most research is focused on the psychiatric effects that cocaine abuse can have (3), though more modern research is covering both the mental and physical effects.

This research further demonstrates the damage that cocaine abuse can have on an individual’s mental health.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

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How can a cocaine dependency or addiction be diagnosed?

A dependency on cocaine, or a cocaine addiction, is often misrepresented in popular media and through misinformed stereotypes.

The behavioural changes portrayed in TV and film are usually far from the reality of cocaine addiction.

However, there are some tools that are designed to help categorise, understand, and diagnose these behaviours.

One of the most common and widely accepted tools used presently is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).

Using 4 categories of criteria and symptoms present in someone with a substance use disorder, the DSM-V breaks down these behaviours based on a multi-symptomatic model (1).

These are as follows:

  • Impaired control – 1. Using more of the substance than planned, 2. Desire to reduce consumption, but being unable to without professional support
  • Social problems – 3. Lack of attention to responsibilities/relationships, 4. Quitting activities that the individual used to engage in, 5. Reduced capacity to complete tasks at home or for work/school
  • Risky use – 6. Substance use in dangerous or risky environments, 7. Persistent use despite negative consequences
  • Physical dependence – 8. Increased tolerance and therefore increased usage, 9. Experiences withdrawal symptoms when attempting to reduce or quit usage

From these criteria, there are then three levels of severity on which a person’s substance usage can be measured on.

A mild substance use disorder would include 2-3 of the above behaviours displayed; 4-5 behaviours displayed is categorised as a moderate substance use disorder, and 6 or more behaviours displayed is categorised as a severe substance use disorder (SUD) – otherwise referred to as an addiction.

The higher an individual ranks on this scale of severity, the more intense the treatment required at the later stages of rehabilitation.

Though this model is not specific to cocaine, rather to substance abuse in general, going through the categories of behaviours in yourself or in someone you know is a great way to start to understand the process of rehabilitation that may be required.

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How to help and support a loved one with a cocaine addiction

As the attention to cocaine addiction and treatment has grown rapidly over the last few years, especially most recently, as has the attention to the support to those affected.

In general, those suffering from any type of addiction often experience feelings of loneliness, isolation, and shame.

Whether this is due to the stereotypes that modern society holds of addicts, or due to their own personal beliefs or behaviours, this can seriously impact their recovery.

Where possible, it is encouraged to try and engage with the individual affected.

In some cases, the individual may approach you for support or help, in which case it is important to keep an open mind and listen to everything they are willing to tell you.

In other cases, this may not always be appropriate. As mentioned earlier, this individual may be experiencing shame and embarrassment, feeling unable to approach others for help.

In these situations, it is vital not to overwhelm the individual or make them feel as though they have to speak about their situation.

Addressing the addiction itself is not always the best strategy, and it may take a while before the individual feels comfortable to speak about their situation.

Depending on the perceived severity of the issue, this can be stressful, but remaining patient whilst encouraging is the best approach.

Research in the past few years has shown again how important these social connections can be to individuals suffering from addiction, quoting close social connections and an involvement in society as some of the best ways to approach rehabilitation in the early stages (4).

This research also highlighted the importance of the individual’s sense of their personal strengths, meaning that support in activities they pursue or wish to engage in should be supported by those around them where suitable, possible, and appropriate.

In all cases, it was important that the individuals worked towards social integration, including factors such as engaging in employment, family support, and building a social network.

However, the research also emphasises the importance of quality over quantity. Having a large social network with minimal engagement or impact on the individual is far less effective than a smaller network with encouraging like-minded, and supportive members.

The idea of tailored and specific rehabilitation is accentuated throughout the rehabilitation process.

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Using intervention in the cocaine addiction treatment process

In some cases, it may be appropriate to use an intervention approach to encourage a loved one to begin rehabilitation.

Intervention refers to the process of a third party, usually an interventionist or counsellor, helping family and friends speak to their loved one about their addiction.

This often takes place in the individual’s home or counsellor’s office and focuses on the engagement between the individual and those affected by their addiction.

Interventions are one of the longest known-of treatments for addiction, but for this reason, some of the approaches applied can be outdated.

The standard intervention practice has around a 30% success rate in terms of encouraging an individual to pursue further rehabilitative options, often being reported as making the individual feel confronted or attacked by the structure of this approach.

As a more modern approach, and taking a more invitational approach rather than confrontational, the Community Reinforcement Approach to Family Training (CRAFT) intervention strategy has a far higher rate of success.

By helping those affected by an individual’s addiction to understand the problems faced and open a conversation, the CRAFT approach has around a 70% success rate for individuals going into further rehabilitative care after the intervention.

A study on those addicted to crack cocaine found that a combination of an intervention and motivational interviewing with feedback improved the adherence to rehabilitation treatment programmes for a minimum period of 6 months (5).

This improvement was significant, showing the importance of understanding, accepting, and encouraging an individual rather than confronting them or causing them to feel ashamed by or attacked because of their situation.

Interventions are not always the most suitable approach to encouraging an individual to enter rehab and forcing this method on anyone is likely to have negative consequences.

Interventions can, for example, be especially useful in younger individuals and adolescents.

However, with the right approach, support, and professional guidance where needed, an intervention can be one of the best ways to help the individual to see their issues, what they need to work on, and how they will be supported in doing so.

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Do I Need to Go to Cocaine Rehab?

rehab - outside photo of exterior building

In the UK, cocaine is a Class A drug.

The drug changes how the brain perceives pleasure making it almost impossible to experience pleasure without using the drug.

Long-term use creates tolerance increasing the need for higher doses.

In the end, cocaine use leads to addiction which is difficult to overcome even with professional help.

Addiction is a disease, and you may need treatment in order to overcome this disease.

Typically, the effects of cocaine addiction can be reversed with proper treatment and support.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

How long does a cocaine rehab last?

Just as addiction is displayed and experienced differently in every individual case, the treatment and approach to rehabilitation must also be different.

With cocaine rehab, there are many factors that may influence how long someone may need to remain in rehabilitation.

One of the first factors that should be considered is the individual’s medical history and current health.

If an individual has been using a substance for a long time and is experiencing severe health issues, then a longer rehab period is needed. On the other hand, someone who has only recently started abusing substances or is experiencing minimal health effects will need a relatively shorter time.

In both cases, this is one of the first factors assessed when Rehab 4 Addiction suggests rehabilitation options.

Generally, those who have abused substances must first go through the detoxification process. This process involves the removal of harmful waste and toxic chemicals that may be left in the body as a result of substance abuse.

The detox process is specialised to each type of substance, such as an alcohol detox or cocaine, and each type and severity of addiction will have a different duration.

The minimum amount of time recommended for detox is 7 days, though again, this will depend on the individual case and not every individual will be suitable for this length of detoxification session.

On average, most individuals will stay in a detox clinic or progress through the stages of detoxification for around 7-10 days, though this time can be as much as 14 days, with a full and complete detox taking around 16 days.

After this, an individual can progress to later rehabilitative addiction treatment programmes such as therapy courses and other holistic treatments.

For a full rehabilitation course, and the recommended duration of rehab from Rehab 4 Addiction, the full rehabilitation centre stay is estimated at 28 days.

This allows the individual to settle in the centre, detox from substances, engage in and complete their specific treatment programmes, and prepare for everyday life outside of the centre with help from the extensive aftercare systems in place.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

Types of cocaine addiction treatments

Therapy room

There are generally two forms of treatment for cocaine addiction that we may recommend: inpatient and outpatient treatment.

We have discussed each of these options in greater detail below:

1. Inpatient treatment for cocaine rehab

We have many inpatient cocaine addiction rehab centres to consider.

Inpatient treatment is the best option for individuals struggling with cocaine addiction since treatment is administered in a residential facility free of distractions.

Inpatient treatment involves 24/7 monitoring in a comfortable environment with professional medical staff ready to attend to patients anytime.

However, since rehabs are different, you should take the time to choose the right cocaine rehab for you.

2. Outpatient treatment

Individuals who are addicted to cocaine can also seek outpatient treatment.

This treatment option may not be the best since patients aren’t monitored 24/7.

Outpatient rehabs don’t monitor their patients throughout since treatment is done on a walk-in basis.

Since patients walk in and out of outpatient rehabs, they are still exposed to triggers of addiction.

However, outpatient treatment works for many people, and so this should be something for you to consider.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

Diverse people in a support group

Types of rehabilitative therapy for cocaine addictions

As previously stated, there is rapidly growing attention in the field of addiction and associated treatments.

Because of this, there is now a multitude of different treatments available for those suffering from an addiction. These are designed to help the individual overcome their addiction during the rehab process, as well as emphasise the long-term nature of these treatments and the care they provide.

One of the most commonly used and applied types of therapy is Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT).

This focuses on the thought patterns, or cognitions, of the individual and aims to help the individual alter these by creating coping mechanisms and replacing them with more positive and constructive ones.

By teaching the individual to acknowledge their more negative thoughts and apply their coping techniques to them, CBT creates a new skill for the individual to continue to work on throughout their therapy as well as throughout their life (6).

Another common type of therapy is Multidimensional Family Therapy (MFT). This tracks the changes in symptoms of the individual affected by opening conversations within the family.

In addition to this, the MFT approach encourages social engagement (7), already mentioned as a beneficial activity for improving the individual’s mental wellbeing.

For individuals who may be struggling with feelings such as shame and embarrassment common within those with addiction, techniques such as Motivational Interviewing (MI) may be more effective.

This method approaches rehabilitation in terms of aiding the individual to achieve the changes they wish to see (8).

By encouraging this desire to recover and supporting the individual’s confidence and self-belief, this is one of the most effective types of addiction therapy.

One final example of addiction therapy is Contingency Management (CM) which works on the principle of rewarding desired behaviour in individuals such as abstinence or progressing through other treatment programmes.

A meta-analysis conducted to assess its effectivity suggested that CM is one of the most effective treatment courses when promoting abstinence when used correctly and appropriately (9).

Though there are many other types of therapy available to those suffering from addiction, these examples highlight just a few of the most effective and commonly used practices in modern addiction treatment.

There are many other types of treatment available.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

When Is It Time to Start Looking For Cocaine Rehab?

head to head

Individuals suffering from cocaine addiction should seek treatment as soon as possible.

Cocaine causes serious damage to a person’s mental and physical health. The drug can also destroy a person’s life.

If you can’t stop using cocaine on your own, seek treatment immediately.

If you suffer negative symptoms on your health or the quality of life you lead, you should also seek treatment immediately.

Once you feel that cocaine has become part of your life and you feel like you cannot function without the substance anymore, you should consider registering for an inpatient rehabilitation facility.

There is still a stigma around addiction as if it indicates you are mentally weak.

This is a very dangerous mindset, and we can tell you there is nothing to be ashamed of.

Addiction to all sorts of drugs can happen to many different people in all walks of life, from the powerful to the most disadvantaged.

At Rehab 4 Addiction, we can help you find the right cocaine rehab clinic to embark on a new journey through life.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

Knowing When Someone Needs Help

Medical conditions that demand hospital treatment can be an indication of addiction and a perfect opportunity to start a conversation on cocaine addiction.

Individuals addicted to cocaine are bound to end up in the hospital for other related health conditions.

Hospital lab work can confirm cocaine addiction.

However, there are subtle symptoms to look out for.

As a stimulant, individuals who use cocaine seem overly energetic most of the time.

Such individuals can work “endless” hours without getting tired or taking a rest.

Unusual energy levels are a notable indicator of cocaine addiction among individuals who don’t exhibit any symptoms.

Individuals addicted to cocaine can get off the drug periodically.

When they do, they may exhibit symptoms like agitation, fatigue, depression, disturbed sleep, sedation, and increased appetite.

If these symptoms are present and replaced suddenly by other symptoms like euphoria and high energy levels, this is a strong indication of cocaine addiction.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

How to Choose a Cocaine Rehab Treatment Programme

Two people hugging

Treatment programmes are selected based on the needs of the person struggling with addiction.

Intensive outpatient care can work for a patient with commitments that don’t allow them to be enrolled in an overnight facility.

Inpatient facilities remove all addiction triggers by putting patients in comfortable facilities free of drugs. Inpatient treatment also ensures 24/7 monitoring and treatment of withdrawal symptoms. Individuals who have tried to quit cocaine in vain should be enrolled in an inpatient cocaine addiction programme.

Treatment programmes also need to provide support services.

Individuals recovering from cocaine use have mental health problems that must be addressed.

Besides detox, they need social support and other recovery tools like therapy.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

Things to Consider About Cocaine Rehab

There are several factors to consider. The main factors include location cost, amenities, professional staff, and recovery rate.

The rehab should be conveniently located. Individuals dealing with cocaine addiction should be close to family members and friends since they are vital in the recovery process.

Cost is also an important factor. The ideal rehab should match a patient’s budget.

The rehab should also have all the necessary amenities and a team of professionals to boost recovery.

The recovery rate is also important since it shows how many patients recover after treatment.

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Understanding Withdrawal From Cocaine

Female therapist with male

Part of the detoxification process as we have discussed involves physical withdrawal from cocaine.

This experience can be unpleasant but with the right care and attention, we will safely see you through it.

Below we have discussed a variety of aspects relating to cocaine withdrawal that you should be aware of:

  • Understanding Abstinence: A person undergoing addiction treatment must abstain from drugs. Detoxification helps to deal with cocaine dependence. Withdrawal symptoms can commence during/after detox making abstinence harder. However, withdrawal symptoms can be suppressed using medication increasing a patient’s willpower to abstain from drugs
  • Physical Withdrawal Symptoms: Cocaine has hazardous withdrawal symptoms like intense cravings (especially during detox), seizures, and cardiovascular problems. Since cocaine is an active stimulant, the drug can strain the heart causing cardiovascular problems
  • Mental Withdrawal Symptoms: Individuals who attempt to quit cocaine can suffer mental health risks like depression and violence.
  • Depression can lead to suicide among individuals with depressive disorders. Symptoms like violence are accompanied by paranoia, confusion, agitation, and hallucinations. The withdrawal effects of cocaine highlight the need for a medically supervised detox
  • Withdrawal Timeline at a cocaine rehab: There are no FDA-approved drugs for treating cocaine withdrawal. However, there are promising drugs that can help individuals overcome withdrawal symptoms. Drugs like naltrexone, propranolol and buprenorphine are promising in this regard. However, there’s still a need for more research. Cocaine withdrawal symptoms that last longer than 7 to 10 days should be treated

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

Our Cocaine Rehab Process

Diverse people in a supporting group session

The good news is cocaine addiction is completely curable under correct rehabilitation conditions.

Rehab 4 Addiction offers residential cocaine rehab for cocaine addiction under such conditions.

1. Detox

Detoxification starts with evaluation and screening, which is done using medication that manages specific cocaine withdrawal symptoms.

Medical records may be requested if you are deemed at risk of high blood pressure and cardiac arrest.

Detox programmes are medically supervised.

You will receive 24-hour day medical observation whilst you tackle ‘withdrawal symptoms’ associated with cocaine detoxification.

Withdrawal symptoms include mood swings, fatigue and suicidal thoughts.

Risk assessments will be conducted when you enter our rehabilitation centre and your medical records may be examined by our medical team

2. Rehabilitation

Once a patient is free of drugs, treatment focuses on addressing the root causes of addiction.

Since cocaine addiction is more psychological than physical in nature, detoxification alone will not be sufficient to defeat your addiction alone during cocaine rehab treatment.

Our cocaine rehab programme incorporates several therapies and counselling sessions arming you with powerful coping strategies needed to prevent relapse.

Therapy comes in the form of group therapy and individual therapy.

Cognitive behavioural therapy is employed throughout.

You may also benefit from other evidence-based treatments such as motivational interviewing and dialectical behavioural therapy.

These forms of treatment have been known to be effective at treating the underlying causes of cocaine addiction.

During group therapy sessions you take part in small group discussions.

Individual therapy is a form of one-on-one therapy conducted in the presence of a qualified psychiatrist or psychologist.

Cocaine addiction treatment also involves group therapy sessions where patients share personal experiences with other individuals struggling with addiction.

The therapy also involves gaining new insights, forming new relationships and support systems. Group therapy is meant to boost recovery.

3. Aftercare

When your cocaine rehab programme draws to a close, we set in place a relapse prevention plan.

We work closely with local communities in your area.

Attend your local Cocaine Anonymous or SMART Recovery group in your area.

After completing addiction treatment, supplemental care is crucial to increase the chances of a full recovery.

Ongoing care or aftercare includes further therapy and counselling sessions. Care can also include pharmaceutical support.

Recovering addicts should attend counselling sessions, support group meetings, and scheduled appointments to boost their chances of recovery.

Our drug rehabs offer free aftercare for up to 12 months after a patient has completed treatment.

Aftercare makes it possible for addicts to seek help during recovery.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

What Is the 12-Step Programme?

Group therapy - teens - black and white

12-steps therapy models the Alcoholics Anonymous approach. However, it can apply to any addiction including cocaine addiction.

The 12 steps are as follows:

  1. The power that drugs have over you
  2. Asking for help from a higher power
  3. Handing over your life to a greater power
  4. Identifying character flaws, taking moral inventory, and identifying those who have harmed you
  5. Sharing discoveries made from step four
  6. Preparing yourself for a higher power to take over
  7. Asking for help from the higher power
  8. Making peace with those who have harmed you in your addiction journey
  9. Taking practical steps to implement step eight
  10. Making moral inventories and admitting wrongdoing when it occurs
  11. Meditation and prayer to enhance connection with the higher power and healing
  12. Helping other individuals struggling with cocaine addiction

Important: There are modifications to the therapy for individuals who have different religious beliefs, something cocaine rehab can assist with.

Relapse prevention planning and training for cocaine addictions

In most rehabilitation centres, and in other outpatient treatments, individuals are likely to experience some form of relapse prevention planning or training from their rehab source provider.

This is an essential part of rehabilitation, as it is the treatment focussed on preparing the individual for life outside of or away from treatment programmes or full-time support.

For many, the prospect of leaving a rehab centre after a long period of rehabilitation can be daunting, but it is important to remember that this is exactly why this training is included as part of the aftercare system.

Focussing on the three elements of recovery – emotional, mental, and physical – relapse prevention planning is a gradual process.

By taking part in this training, individuals will learn that recovery is not an overnight change.

Though this can be frustrating at times, and extremely challenging at others, individuals must keep in mind that this is a chance for personal growth and change.

Viewing it with this perspective will help the individuals see the benefits of recovery as well as setting personal goals to serve as milestones during the recovery process.

The main tools or focusses of this training are cognitive therapy (such as those applied in CBT) and relaxation of the body and mind.

Individuals are reminded to be honest with themselves whilst creating this plan in order to set achievable and realistic goals.

In addition, it may be helpful to write the plan down on a physical piece of paper or as a phone reminder to serve as a reference if needed.

Research shows that relapse prevention training is most effective when there is a strong focus on maintenance at each stage of progress, no matter how long each stage may take to achieve (10).

In addition, providing the opportunity for intervention at each stage was also beneficial for the individuals.

Across the recovery process, there are three core motives: abstinence, repair, and growth.

By taking these on as personal goals, and being patient with oneself, an individual has a higher rate of success for recovery and long-term maintenance.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

Group

Cocaine addiction help via free sources of rehabilitation

When looking for sources of addiction treatment, there are now thousands, if not millions, of different options across the UK.

For this reason, it can be difficult to know where to start.

However, there are several options that can be considered from the very beginning of the rehabilitation journey.

For example, the first decision that many people seeking rehab need to make is whether they should progress down the council-funded route of care or the private rehabilitation path.

This decision is massively important, as it dictates a number of factors such as access to care, type of care offered, cost of care, and sometimes the overall effectiveness of the care offered.

In most cases, individuals seek the help of local, council-funded care, as this is the most convenient for them.

This type of care can be initiated through your local GP or doctors’ surgery and is therefore usually close-by, free of charge, and accessible to all.

However, this can come with some drawbacks. For example, if everyone suffering from addiction accessed help in this way, the system would be overloaded.

Even now, there are lengthy waiting lists to access rehabilitative care.

Even if this care is accessed, it may not be consistent (with the same therapist etc.) and the individual may be asked to travel to further centres or care providers to seek specialist help.

As an alternative, individuals can consider private rehab clinics for a specific addiction, such as an addiction to cocaine or alcohol.

By choosing private care, individuals are eligible for immediate access to care in a residential centre, including detoxification sessions and tailored therapy programmes.

In centres suggested by Rehab 4 Addiction, these centres will always provide the highest level of care available with specialist addiction staff and experts in the field of rehabilitation.

In addition to this, residential rehab also provides the highest rates of success when compared to alternative treatment programme approaches.

A common misconception is that residential rehab is incredibly costly, but this is not always the case and individuals are encouraged to remember where their money is going; with the highest ratio of staff to patients, residential rehab is almost always recommended for those struggling with an addiction.

Finding help

If you require cocaine rehabilitation, contact our admissions team today on 0800 140 4690.

We help you find a suitable treatment in your local area. Quitting cocaine use is not easy, and having access to evidence-based treatments is one way to stop.

References

[1] Deroche-Gamonet, V. and Piazza, P.V., 2014. Psychobiology of cocaine addiction: Contribution of a multi-symptomatic animal model of loss of control. Neuropharmacology, 76, pp.437-449.

[2] Gawin, F.H., 1991. Cocaine addiction: psychology and neurophysiology. Science, 251(5001), pp.1580-1586.

[3] Mahoney III, J.J., Hawkins, R.Y., De La Garza II, R., Kalechstein, A.D. and Newton, T.F., 2010. Relationship between gender and psychotic symptoms in cocaine-dependent and methamphetamine-dependent participants. Gender medicine, 7(5), pp.414-421.

[4] Dekkers, A., De Ruysscher, C. and Vanderplasschen, W., 2020. Perspectives of cocaine users on addiction recovery: A qualitative study following a CRA+ vouchers programme. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 27(4), pp.282-296.

[5] Ingersoll, K.S., Farrell-Carnahan, L., Cohen-Filipic, J., Heckman, C.J., Ceperich, S.D., Hettema, J. and Marzani-Nissen, G., 2011. A pilot randomized clinical trial of two medication adherence and drug use interventions for HIV+ crack cocaine users. Drug and alcohol dependence, 116(1-3), pp.177-187.

[6] Carroll, K.M., 1998. Therapy manuals for drug addiction, manual 1: a cognitive-behavioral approach: treating cocaine addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse, pp.55-65.

[7] Liddle, H.A., Dakof, G.A., Parker, K., Diamond, G.S., Barrett, K. and Tejeda, M., 2001. Multidimensional family therapy for adolescent drug abuse: Results of a randomized clinical trial. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, 27(4), pp.651-688.

[8] Hettema, J., Steele, J. and Miller, W.R., 2005. Motivational interviewing. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol., 1, pp.91-111.

[9] Prendergast, M., Podus, D., Finney, J., Greenwell, L. and Roll, J., 2006. Contingency management for treatment of substance use disorders: A meta‐analysis. Addiction, 101(11), pp.1546-1560.

[10] Marlatt, G.A. and George, W.H., 1984. Relapse prevention: Introduction and overview of the model. British journal of addiction, 79(4), pp.261-273.