Rehab 4 Addiction

Drug & Alcohol Rehab Scotland

For the vast majority of people living in Scotland, alcohol is a relatively harmless substance used to liven up social occasions.

However, for some, alcohol is an immense issue that threatens their physical and psychological well-being.

Under these circumstances, people with alcoholism face a startling choice: stop drinking alcohol and live, or continue to drink alcohol and die.

In Scotland, many people, unfortunately, suffer from drug and alcohol addiction. The harsh reality is that you are five times more likely to die from alcohol or drug addiction if you are Scottish compared to your counterparts in England.

The good news is that your addiction is highly treatable, and Scotland is not short of excellent treatment providers.

These providers have come a long way since the 1990s. Modern rehabs in Scotland offer evidence-based treatments.

Medicated detox follows NICE Guidelines.

The old ‘institutional’ rehab treatment centre is very much a thing of the past, and there exists ‘trendy’ rehabs that focus on providing a loving and caring environment for their clients.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

Reaching Out for Professional Help

Reaching out for professional help in Scotland may seem like a threatening prospect. Many people with alcoholism may not understand the significance of this illness.

Many people may also entirely resist the notion that they suffer from alcoholism.

Thankfully, Rehab 4 Addiction is on hand to ensure you or your loved one receives the care and attention you need to defeat drug or alcohol addiction.

When you contact Rehab 4 Addiction, we help you come to terms with the existence of your condition.

Once you have overcome denial in coming to terms with your alcoholism, you effectively make it possible for us to devise a solution to your problem.

Initially, we carry out a telephone assessment. This assessment is used to gather relevant information concerning your addiction.

We then use this information to match you up to a suitable treatment provider in Scotland.

It’s likely we may locate more than one treatment provider. In this case, we may refer you to several treatment providers.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

Who is Alcohol & Drug Rehab Suitable for? 

Lots of people who suffer from an addiction to drugs or alcohol might question whether or not they’re suitable for rehab.

They might question whether or not they’re ready, whether it would be deemed ‘too late’ for them or just simply ‘too early.’

However, the reality is that it’s never too late or too early to attend and receive treatment for substance abuse.

Nevertheless, in order to receive addiction treatment for alcohol, it’s suggested by many rehab centres that you must be consuming approximately 30 or more units of alcohol per day.

Additionally, as with many addictions, individuals often tend to present a range of mental health issues. This makes it extremely hard to complete a home detox or helps themselves without attending rehab.

In fact, by attempting to do so they might be putting their physical and mental health issues worse.

Here’s a list of some common criteria that doctors and professionals look out for when assessing whether or not someone is suitable for rehab in the Scotland area:

  • Consuming more than 30 units of alcohol per day
  • Suffering from Wernicke’s encephalopathy symptoms such as coordination problems and eye twitches
  • Acting violently towards others whilst drunk or high
  • Having tried to detox and withdrawal themselves but have failed
  • Having suicidal thoughts
  • Craving alcohol or drugs every day
  • Struggling to maintain their normal, daily life and routine
  • Experiencing delirium tremens (confusion) or seizures due to their alcohol or drug use

Professionals also use the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria. This includes:

  • Repeatedly abusing the drug and your body despite knowledge of the harm it’s doing
  • Lying, stealing or going out of your way to getting your hands on the addictive substance
  • Trying to give up but failing
  • Noticing a substantial increase in your tolerance to the substance
  • Cancelling plans with friends or quitting previously well-loved hobbies
  • Consuming more and more of the addictive substance
  • Refusing to quit in fear of experiencing withdrawal symptoms

The Admissions Process in Scotland

Man with pen

If you’re looking into gaining a place at a rehab centre in Scotland, then it would be useful to understand the ASAM Patient Placement Criteria.

The ASAM criteria allow doctors, clinicians and therapists an insight into the individual’s addiction, whilst also providing them with a structure for assessment [1].

Below is the list of 6 dimensions that make up the ASAM’s criteria and which doctors and professionals use throughout their assessment and the admissions process in Scotland.

Dimension 1 – Addiction and Detox Potential

It’s important for professionals to gain an understanding of your addiction. For example, they will need to know exactly what kind of substances they are addicted to and how long you’ve been addicted to them. Additionally, they will try and assess how likely it is that you will be able to complete a detoxification programme and what level of support you will need.

Dimension 2 – Health & Wellbeing

Dimension 2 concerns your health. It’s important that the clinicians gain a solid understanding of your current health state and any previous health concerns you may have. 

Dimension 3 – Psychological Wellbeing

Additionally, they will also try and gain an understanding of your mental health. This is in order to identify whether you suffer from a dual diagnosis and what kind of treatments you will need to receive in order to recover.

Dimension 4 – Your Commitment to the Cause

Your commitment to your addiction recovery is one of the most important aspects of your recovery. Unless you’re committed and motivated to recover, you will struggle to find the strength to overcome the withdrawal and detoxification process.

Dimension 5 – Relapse Potential

The team will also assess whether or not you’ve relapsed in the past. 

Dimension 6 – Home Environment & Potential Triggers

It’s also important that the team gain an understanding of your family life at home.

This is because it’s important to assess if your environment at home holds any triggers for you. These triggers could be an individual, a certain place or a situation. 

By assessing these six dimensions, professionals will be in a better place to help and treat your addiction.

From assessing these dimensions, the team will determine whether your addiction is deemed mild, moderate or severe [1].

In order to be deemed to have a mild addiction, you must present two or three of the above dimensions and symptoms.

For a moderate addiction, you will present four or five of the above dimensions.

Finally, if you display four or five of the above symptoms and dimensions, then you will be deemed to have a severe addiction [2].

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDITs)

Health and wellness massage for sports and fitness

In order to determine whether or not someone is suitable for rehab, clinicians and professionals use the AUDIT in order to assess how severe an individual’s addiction and substance dependency is before admitting them to rehab.

Individuals completing the test can answer never, every month or less, 2 – 4 times a month, 2 – 3 times a week or 4 or more times every week.

Below is a list of questions from the AUDIT. The questions are categorised into three sections (consumption, dependence and consequences) [3].

Consumption

  • How often do you have a drink?
  • When you do drink, how many units do you drink?
  • How many times do you drink more than six units if you’re a female or 8 units if you’re a male?

Dependency

  • In the last 12 months, how often would you say you struggle to stop drinking?
  • How many times in the past year have you failed to keep to your daily life routine and responsibilities because you’ve been intoxicated?
  • How many times in the past year have you failed to get up in the morning on time due to alcohol consumption?

Consequences

  • How often would you say you feel guilty or regretful?
  • How often have you not been able to remember the night before after a heavy drinking session?
  • Have you injured yourself or another individual due to your addiction to alcohol?
  • Has anyone ever told you that you need to get help for your addiction or raised concerns?

Professionals will take the answers taken from this test and assess the severity.

If individual scores more than 13 on this test, then it’s recommended that they seek help from a rehab centre.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

Pre-rebab steps: Intervention 

Group therapy - teens - black and white

For the family and friends of individuals suffering from substance misuse, whether it be alcohol abuse or drug abuse, it can be extremely hard to know what to say, and how to say it.

This might be the first time they’ve ever known or dealt with anyone with a substance use disorder.

That’s why interventions are a great help.

An intervention provides family and friends with a clear, structured plan of action.

It’s important that interventions are led in a calm and reassuring way so that the individual doesn’t think you’re accusing, attacking or judging them in any way.

An intervention should highlight solutions to the sufferer, whilst you communicate your concerns.

Whilst you hold the intervention, you might want to ask an intervention specialist to attend. By doing so, they’ll be able to structure the intervention in a way that’s most productive.

In the lead up to the intervention, you should think about exactly who you want to attend and where you think you should hold the intervention.

It’s always best to do this in a private setting so that the individual feels safe and anything discussed is confidential.

It’s also a good idea to consult CRAFT (Community Reinforcement and Family Training).

CRAFT is a fantastic tool that teaches friends and family members how to communicate and help their loved one who’s suffering from an addiction.

It educates people on how to promote positive reinforcement and healthy behaviours, whilst also teaching them how to help their loved ones say no to triggers, cravings and temptations.

How Much Does Rehab Cost in Scotland?

Therapy room

Although there are general price ranges that most rehab centres sit within, there are a few factors that affect how much it costs to go to rehab.

For example, where the rehab centre is will affect the price. Additionally, the price also varies on how long you stay there, and whether you decide to opt for a private or shared room.

For example, a ten-day rehab stint in a private room costs anywhere between £3,000 and £6,000. However, the same duration in a shared room is a lot cheaper, coming in at anything between £2,000 and £4,000.

However, if you stay for longer, say a period of 28 days then the cost will be considerably more expensive. For example, you should expect to pay anything between £8,000 and £12,000 for a private room and £6,000 for a shared room.

If this cost is unrealistic for you, then you might also want to consider a home detox.

It’s important that you understand that a home detox is not the same thing as ‘going it alone.’

A home detox means that you will be sent medication to your house, and will receive daily phone calls from doctors, therapists and other professionals to check in with you and see how you’re doing.

Although this is considerably cheaper, at only £1,500, you do not receive the same level of treatment and help as you would attending residential rehab.

If you’re looking for a rehab centre in Scotland, then get in touch with our team at Rehab 4 Addiction and we can talk through the costs with you.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

Private Rehab vs. Council founded rehab treatment

rehab - outside photo of exterior building

In the UK, there is some confusion surrounding the issue of private vs NHS funded rehab.

What many people aren’t aware of is that there is no such thing as a totally NHS funded rehab centre. Unfortunately, this just simply does not exist.

Due to an overall lack of funding for the NHS, there are only a few NHS funded beds within private rehab centres.

Here is a list of some pros and cons to consider whilst deciding if you want to opt for private rehab or NHS funded rehab.

NHS Funded

If you attend rehab via the NHS, then the main benefit is that you don’t have to pay a penny towards your treatment.

This makes rehab accessible to those who might not be able to afford it and is one of the many great things about the NHS.

If you attend rehab and receive treatment through the NHS, then it’s also likely that you will be put in a local rehab centre, meaning that you won’t be too far away from friends and family.

However, gaining a place at a rehab centre through the NHS is becoming increasingly hard. Due to a lack of funding, these places are becoming extremely limited.

Therefore, the NHS is not able to hand these places out easily.

Additionally, whilst these places are hard to come by, they also involve a very long waiting list which could have some people waiting weeks, if not months to get help.

Finally, if you’re suffering from a dual diagnosis, the NHS will treat your mental health issues separately from your addiction.

This will make recovery less smooth and might mean that you have to wait longer for mental health treatment.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

Private Rehab

Although it is expensive, there are many benefits and pros to attending private rehab.

For a start, you receive top of the range and professional medical and psychological care and support.

By opting to go private, you will also get help quicker, with teams working around the clock to get you through the door as quickly as possible.

You will also receive an aftercare support plan, which means that you will be less likely to relapse. 

However, as noted above, private rehab is expensive and therefore not everyone can afford to pay to go private.

Going private or through the NHS is something you should think about carefully.

For many people, paying to go private simply isn’t an option. However, if you’re in urgent need of care then it is something you should consider or talk to an NHS doctor about.

Criteria for Substance Use Disorder in DSM-5

Healthcare professionals also use a tool called the DSM-5 which they use frequently to help diagnose substance use disorders, taking into account a long list of symptoms.

These symptoms help professionals categorise an individual’s addiction into three different categories, including mild, moderate and severe [5].

Individuals will fall into one of these categories depending on how many symptoms they have [6].

These symptoms include [6]:

  • Neglecting their own basic needs
  • Noticing an increase in your tolerance levels to the addictive substance
  • Taking a considerable more amount of the substance to feel the same effect
  • Experiencing stronger cravings than you used to
  • Cancelling plans and hobbies that you would have enjoyed
  • A history of previously trying to recovery or withdraw but failing
  • Arguing with friends or family more frequently
  • Continuing to abuse the substance whilst understanding the harm it’s doing to yourself and others
  • Experiencing withdrawal symptoms when you stop consuming the drug or substance
  • Developing mental or physical health problems
  • Spending the majority of your time-consuming drugs or alcohol or thinking about it

If you display 2 or 3 of the above symptoms, then your substance use disorder is said to be mild [6].

If you display 4 or 5 of them, then it’s said to be moderate [6].

If you display 6 or more of any of the above symptoms then it’s believed that you have a severe addiction to drugs or alcohol [6].

How Long Does Rehab Last?

Drinking coffee

Unfortunately, there is no one set time that suits all.

How long you will need to stay in rehab depends very much on your personal situation.

For some individuals, they might only need to stay in rehab for 7 days.

Although this is generally the minimum amount of time people tend to stay in rehab for, if you have a mild addiction then this might be enough time to recover.

Nevertheless, at Rehab 4 Addiction we recommend that individuals stay in rehab for at least 28 days. This is so that any physical and mental symptoms can be treated properly and in good time.

For some people, this might take a bit longer. For example, some stay in rehab for 60 days. However, this does tend to be the case for individuals suffering from a long term, severe addiction.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

Alcohol Detox & Rehab in Scotland

Walking outside

Anyone who attends a rehab centre in Scotland, or elsewhere within the UK will need to undergo alcohol detox.

For lots of people suffering from an addiction, they will have heard about the unpleasant withdrawal symptoms.

Unfortunately, these symptoms include things like feeling nauseous, irritated, stressed, anxious, agitated and excessively sweating and being sick.

For individuals who are already suffering from a range of health concerns from their addiction, these withdrawal symptoms make things even harder.

Not to mention the increased health risks undergoing a detox brings.

During your detox, you will receive care day in, day out from medical and healthcare professionals.

During this time, it might be recommended to take Librium, which is a form of medication used to help relieve symptoms of anxiety.

It’s often used for the first 10 days of your detox, and then a few weeks afterwards if needed.

After you’ve overcome the detox process, you will then be given the chance to work on your mental and physical well being.

Now that your body has overcome your withdrawal and rid itself of the addictive substances, it’s time to focus on overcoming your triggers.

It is really important to identify and overcome these triggers before you leave the rehab facility, as many of these triggers will still exist at home and in your daily life.

Once at rehab, you’ll be working with professionals to create coping mechanisms so you can avoid and overcome these unhelpful triggers.

The NIH states that there are two main types of triggers, being external and internal [7].

External triggers include things like people, situations or places that might trigger a negative emotion.

Internal triggers include things like your emotions and internal feelings which might trigger the need to consume alcohol to escape feeling a certain way.

The Risks of an Unmanaged Alcohol Withdrawal

Two people hugging

As detoxification from alcohol and drugs brings with it some serious and unpleasant side effects and symptoms, at Rehab 4 Addiction we advise that you should detox and withdraw in a controlled and professional environment, such as a rehab centre.

If your withdrawal goes unmanaged, then you could end up with some serious medical complications.

Symptoms start to show as quickly as 6 hours into your withdrawal.

It’s normal to experience symptoms such as anxiety, tremors, insomnia, feeling restless and sick.

However, if your detox and withdrawal goes unmanaged by healthcare professionals, then you might experience more serious symptoms and health risks.

These symptoms include things like issues breathing, fevers, excessive shaking, sweating and feeling unbearably anxious.

If you start to feel any of the below symptoms, then you should definitely be admitted to a rehab centre for treatment [8]:

  • Feeling suicidal
  • If you have a history of seizures
  • If you live alone or if you don’t have friends or family staying with you to support you
  • If you experience psychiatric problems
  • If you’re abusing a high number of drugs or substances
  • If you experience Delirium Tremens
  • If you experience Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome

Delirium Tremens (DT)

Delirium Tremens are when an individual experiences hallucinations and disorientation when they withdraw from an addictive substance.

Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome

Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome is a symptom that is very common to dementia. It’s caused when an individual drinks too much and lacks certain levels of nutrients in the body. If your withdrawal goes unmanaged, you run a risk of developing this disease.

Alcohol Home Detox in Scotland

Home detox is not to be confused with trying to recover and detox on your home, without any help.

As previously discussed, this can be a much cheaper alternative for those who don’t want to attend rehab, or for those who simply cannot afford the cost.

Most rehab centres offer an at-home detox, if the individual drinks less than 30 units of alcohol per day, and if they are in the right mental and physical state to attempt an at-home detox.

You will receive all medication (Librium included) in the post and will receive daily phone calls from doctors and therapists.

Although this is a great alternative, it’s important to understand that an at-home detox is in no way the same as attending residential rehab.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

Rehab for Cocaine in Scotland

People in circle holding hands

Cocaine is highly addictive and changes how your brain acknowledges pleasure.

However, not many individuals are aware that cocaine is not physically addictive.

Therefore, if an individual withdraws from cocaine, they will not experience any withdrawal symptoms in the same way as they would alcohol.

However, cocaine causes a very strong psychological addiction, which can be extremely hard for many individuals to overcome.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

Rehab for Heroin in Scotland

Group

Heroin is also another very highly addictive drug, which causes serious harm to both your psychological and physical health.

Unlike cocaine, if you attempt to withdraw from heroin, you will experience physical symptoms.

Because of this, it’s extremely important to attend a professional rehab facility if you are thinking about detoxing from heroin.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

Rehab for Cannabis in Scotland

Couple meeting a therapist

Excessive use of cannabis can and does lead to some very serious health concerns.

These concerns include immunity issues, depression, paranoia, anxiety and respiratory issues.

In a similar way to cocaine, although cannabis might not cause your body to become physically addicted to the drug, it’s a highly addictive drug psychologically.

Treatment for cannabis requires a lot of work on your mental health, which will involve talking therapy, either in a one to one or group setting.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

Types of Therapies On Offer in Scotland Rehabs 

Massage

Thankfully, there are a lot of different treatment options on offer in most rehab centres.

These options include, but are not limited to the following treatment options.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a very popular form of therapy that aims to change the way individuals frame their thoughts.

Brief Interventions

A brief intervention is a tool and technique used and recommended by healthcare professionals to try and establish in the early days of an individual’s recovery to establish whether or not an individual is capable of stopping on their own.

It is simply structured and short conservation, which often takes place during the admissions stage.

Dialectical Behavioural Therapy (DBT)

Dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT) is similar to CBT in that it aims to change the way people frame their thoughts and emotions. The only difference is that DBT deals with individuals who have very strong, intense emotions that they struggle to control.

DBT works to help people find a balance between accepting how they feel and finding strategies to overcome these negative emotions.

Holistic Therapy

Holistic therapy is another great treatment option offered to most people at rehab. Holistic therapy often involves a range of activities such as painting, drawing, doing yoga or pilates, swimming, listening to or playing music.

Motivational Interviewing

Motivational Interviewing aims to use the individuals’ internal motivations to help them change on their own.

It works to overcome ambivalence, in that it helps individuals to resolve any contradictory thoughts or emotions about their addiction, triggers or certain situations.

Group therapy

For some individuals with a mild addiction, it might be recommended that they are best suited to group therapy. 

In group therapy, you will be given therapy and the chance to share your experience, thoughts and emotions in front of others.

They will be able to help, advise and guide you whilst making you feel like you have a support system that not only cares but understands what you’re going through.

Individual therapy 

If group therapy isn’t for you, then you might attend one to one, individual therapy. This could include CBT or DBT therapy, which goes in-depth into your motivations, triggers, thoughts and emotions.

Family therapy

Family therapy might be useful if you believe that some of your triggers come from your home and family.

Family therapy involves attending therapy with your family, whilst you have a calm, controlled and open discussion about how they might trigger certain behaviours or motivations.

Twelve-Step Facilitation Therapy

This is a form of treatment that encourages individuals to seek help from 12 step self-help groups.

These self-help groups include groups such as the AA, which have been known to have very high success rates.

Co-dependency Treatment

Co-dependency occurs when an individual feels attached or dependent on someone or something.

This causes low self-esteem and issues with boundaries and saying no.

If you’re suffering from codependency, then it’s likely that you will receive CBT.

The Importance of Dual Diagnosis for Co-occurring Disorders at Rehab

Diverse people in a support group

Lots of individuals who suffer from addiction also suffer from a co-occurring mental health issue. This means that you will be diagnosed with a dual diagnosis.

These mental health disorders include things like anxiety, depression, paranoia, schizophrenia or bipolar disorder [9].

This means that at rehab, individuals with a dual diagnosis will receive treatment for both their addiction and their mental health disorder.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

Relapse Prevention Planning at Rehab in Scotland

Most people at rehab will receive a relapse prevention plan. This plan will include information on relapses and how to avoid them.

It highlights the fact that all relapses happen gradually, and that there are certain milestones to a relapse.

It also suggests that CBT therapy is a great way to avoid relapsing and that there are a number of rules that you should follow to remain sober [10].

The Alternatives to Going to Residential Rehab in Scotland

Group therapy - hands in air

We understand that residential rehab isn’t for everyone, which is why we’ve listed a few alternatives to attending residential rehab in Scotland below.

AA or Narcotics Anonymous

Self-help groups such as the AA (Alcoholics Anonymous) and the NA (Narcotics Anonymous) are a great way to receive help and support without attending rehab.

You’ll be surrounded by like-minded individuals who know and understand what you’re going through.

SMART Meetings

Unlike other 12 step self-help groups like the AA and NA, SMART meetings have four steps.

These steps include finding your motivation to change, learning how to deal with cravings, managing your negative emotions and tips on how to live an overall healthier and more positive life.

Home Detox

As discussed above, home detox is a great alternative to attending residential rehab whilst also receiving help from medical professionals.

Al-Anon Family Group Meetings

If you’re a family member or friend in need of support, then an Al-Anon group might be for you.

There are hundreds of Al-Anon groups throughout the UK that aim to help family members and loved ones cope with their issues surrounding the individual’s addiction.

Please call our 24-Hour Helpline: 0800 140 4690

Outpatient Treatment Via a Local Drug & Alcohol Team in Scotland

There are many different outpatient treatment options in Scotland.

Most rehab centres offer outpatient treatment programmes, which allows individuals to receive treatment at a rehab centre and then go home to live their daily life as normal.

What Happens When Your Treatment Begins

Female therapist with male

When you enter a Scotland rehab centre, you will be fully assessed by a medical professional. This professional is typically a psychiatrist.

You will then be prescribed non-harmful drugs to help you weather otherwise potentially fatal withdrawal symptoms.

During your detoxification programme, you will benefit from round-the-clock monitoring by a team of medical professionals.

This ensures you will never be too far from medical assistance should you run into any issues during your detoxification.

Essentially, detoxification helps rid your body of all toxins caused by the consumption of drugs or alcohol.

However, simply ‘stopping’ is rarely enough to remain ‘in recovery’ for the long term.

To remain abstinent for many years to come, you must rehabilitate and make significant changes to the way you live your life.

You must also work to eliminate negative thoughts and feelings that fuel your addiction to drugs and alcohol.

The importance of a drug and alcohol rehabilitation programme

To help you achieve this aim, Scotland-based rehab clinics offer you a range of counselling and therapy sessions. These sessions aim to give you the hope and tangible skills to live your life without resorting to drugs or alcohol.

Many Scotland rehabs offer modern therapy techniques such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and psychotherapy. You may also benefit from ’12 steps’ work as advocated by Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous.

At Rehab 4 Addiction, we believe it’s essential for patients to work hard on their recovery for the rest of their lives. It is unlikely you will develop the required vigilance to remain in recovery over a month.

Whilst rehab is an important step towards your long-term recovery goals, it is very much the first step.

In order to continue towards achieving your recovery goals, you must make fundamental changes in how you live your life. One way we help you achieve your aims is via aftercare sessions.

When you attend one of our Scotland rehab clinics, we ensure you benefit from an extended aftercare programme.

This entitles you to the ability to return to the rehab clinic on an ‘outpatient’ basis for many months following the completion of your residential treatment.

Get in touch today

To enquire about our free assessment and rehabilitation services in Scotland, contact us today on 0800 140 4690.

All information you provide will be held in the strictest of confidence. We look forward to receiving your call and getting you onto the road towards long term abstinence.

Rehab 4 Addiction officers a range of addiction treatment services in Scotland, including Aberdeen, Ayrshire, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Strathclyde, Stirling, St Andrews, Prestwick, Perth, Peebles, Paisley, Motherwell, Midlothian, Lothian, Livingston, Kilmarnock, Irvine, Inverness, Berwick, Hamilton, Glenrothes, Galloway, Falkirk, Dunfermline, Dundee, Dumfries, Dumbarton, Clydebank, Bathgate, Bannockburn, Argyll, and Angus.

References

[1] https://www.asamcontinuum.org/knowledgebase/what-are-the-six-dimensions-of-the-asam-criteria/

[2] https://www.addictionpolicy.org/post/dsm-5-facts-and-figures

[3] https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/684823/Alcohol_use_disorders_identification_test__AUDIT_.pdf

[4]  https://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2014-52671-007.html

[5]  https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/dsm

[6] https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12060782

[7] https://www.rethinkingdrinking.niaaa.nih.gov/tools/Interactive-worksheets-and-more/Stay-in-control/Coping-With-Urges-To-drink.aspx

[8] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441882/

[9] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6876494/

[10]  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4553654/

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